was probed for PS1. effects. In addition, our results suggest that PS2 induces apoptosis through a pathway that is different from that of PS1. resulting in the formation of the cytochrome were purchased from BD Biosciences. Antibodies against poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP); caspase-3, -8, and -9; C-terminal fragment of PS1 (PS1C); Bax; Bak; Bid; Bcl-2; and Smac/DIABLO were purchased from Cell Signaling. Anti-COX I and anti-c-Myc (9E10) antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Anti-PS1N was raised against a peptide related to residues 27C50 of human being PS1 (24). Horseradish peroxidase-linked anti-rabbit IgG antibody (donkey), horseradish peroxidase-linked anti-mouse IgG antibody (sheep), and the developing reagent ECL Plus were purchased from GE Healthcare. The plasmid pcDNA3.1/LacZ-Myc-His, which expresses Myc-tagged LacZ protein, was provided in the vector packages by the vendor (Life Systems). Annexin V-enhanced green fluorescent protein apoptosis detection kit was purchased from GenScript. Trypsin without EDTA was purchased from Lonza. Human being crazy type PS1 (PS1wt), PS1D385A, PS1D257A, and PS1D385A/D257A cDNA were generated as explained previously (17). PSAP-specific antibody Ab1 was raised against an N-terminal peptide of PSAP as explained inside a earlier study (18). Cell Tradition and Transfection Human being cervical malignancy HeLa cells, human being neuroglioma H4 cells, and human being colon cancer HCT116 cells were cultured in DMEM (Lonza) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 models/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml streptomycin. Human being prostate malignancy DU145 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Lonza) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 models/ml penicillin, and 100 ABT-888 (Veliparib) g/ml streptomycin. For transient transfection, cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1 expressing PS1 or LacZ using Lipofectamine 2000 following a manufacturer’s instructions. Establishment of a HeLa Cell Collection Stably Expressing Bcl-2 HeLa cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1/Bcl-2 plasmid with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. The transfectants were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, and the stable clones were selected by G418 (400 g/ml). Subcellular Fractionation and Cytochrome c Launch For examination of cytochrome launch, the cytosolic components and mitochondria-containing membrane fractions were prepared by permeabilization of cells with streptolysin O using the method explained previously by Mosser (19) with minor modification (17). Briefly, cells (106) were washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), collected by centrifugation, and resuspended in F2rl3 10 l of streptolysin O buffer (20 mm HEPES, pH 7.5, 250 mm sucrose, 10 mm KCl, 1.5 mm MgCl2, 1 mm EDTA, 1 mm EGTA, 1 mm dithiothreitol, 0.1 mm phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and 1 protease inhibitor mixture) containing 60 models of streptolysin O (Sigma). After incubation at 37 C for 20 min, the permeabilization of cells was monitored by trypan blue staining. At the time when 95% cells were stained, permeabilized cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 16,000 for 15 min at 4 C. The supernatant was collected as the cytosolic portion, and the pellet was collected like a mitochondria-containing ABT-888 (Veliparib) membrane portion. Both the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions were then subjected to SDS-PAGE (10C14%) followed by Western blot. siRNA Treatment siRNA duplexes specific to caspase-8, FADD, Bax, Bak, Bid, and PSAP were generated by Qiagen. A control siRNA duplex that does not target any sequence in the genome (by BLAST search) was also purchased from Qiagen. Cells were transfected with these siRNAs twice at 2-day time intervals using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX reagent, following the instructions provided by the manufacturer. On day time 5, cells were transfected with PS1 or LacZ using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. Twenty-four h after transfection, cells were harvested and lysed for further analysis. In some cases, half of the cells were lysed and directly subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis; the other half of the cells were used to prepare cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions. Immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and Western Blotting For immunoprecipitation, cells were lysed in immunoprecipitation lysis buffer (1% CHAPSO, 30 mm Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 150 mm NaCl, 5 mm EDTA, and ABT-888 (Veliparib) 1 protease inhibitor combination). After sonication for 20 s, the total cell lysates were centrifuged at 14,000 for 5 min at 4 C to remove.